Title - often long and technical.
Author Information - author name, affiliation (ex: university or laboratory) and contact information.
Citation - article title, journal or source name, volume and issue information and pagination. Also, DOI numbers are used in APA style.
Abstract - a summary of the whole article.
Introduction - outlines the problem being examined -- the purpose or hypothesis.
Methodology - how the research or experiment was performed. In order for an experiment to be reproduceable, methodology must be thoroughly described. This may include discussion of materials and subject selection.
Data/Results - data in tables, charts, figures, or illustrations.
Discussion/Conclusions - explains and interprets the results, drawing a final conclusion about the problem. Primary research may bring new information to the discipline, or may confirm or dispute previous findings.
References - sources given in a consistent style.
Empirical research is based on observation, so that evidence is collected to reach a conclusion. But how do you figure out what to observe or how to observe once you have a research question? That's your methodology.
A methodology is an approach or process to your research. It is influenced by the philosophy and reasoning behind the particular research design that you have chosen. More specifically, a methodology is the set of particular steps taken to conduct a research project. People often talk about methodologies in terms of these groups.
Qualitative and Quantitative
Simple summation: If you count the people in several study areas, you can quantitatively determine the most popular study spaces on campus. If you want to know what qualities make a space popular, you would need qualitative methods, such as surveys or questionnaires, to directly question the users.
Primary and Secondary
The best way to understand the differences between kinds of research is to look at samples.