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FYOS 1001: Brain Structure, Function, and Dysfunction

Defining Research

Research is a systematic method of inquiry to gain knowledge. This knowledge might be an answer to a question or problem, or if may be descriptive, telling us what about a process. You have a structured method for how you will conduct the inquiry and gather your data. Having a structured methodology is necessary to provide guidance to other researchers who might want to try to reproduce the results. If the results happen only once, then those results may have been in error, or at least cannot be applied universally.

Another way of describing research is to say that it is the application of scientific method to a problem or question.

Part of a Primary Research Article

  • Title - often long and technical.

  • Author Information - author name, affiliation (ex: university or laboratory) and contact information.

  • Citation - article title, journal or source name, volume and issue information and pagination. Also, DOI numbers are used in APA style.

  • Abstract - a summary of the whole article. 

  • Introduction - outlines the problem being examined -- the purpose or hypothesis.

  • Methodology - how the research or experiment was performed. In order for an experiment to be reproduceable, methodology must be thoroughly described.  This may include discussion of materials and subject selection.

  • Data/Results - data in tables, charts, figures, or illustrations.

  • Discussion/Conclusions - explains and interprets the results, drawing a final conclusion about the problem.  Primary research may bring new information to the discipline, or may confirm or dispute previous findings.

  • References - sources given in a consistent style.