A brief is a written legal document that is presented to the court arguing why a party to the case should have a decision in their favor.
- Merit briefs are filed disclosing the facts and legal arguments of a case. These are normally filed by the parties to the case.
- Amicus curiae briefs ("friend of the court") are filed by persons/groups not directly affilated with the case. These groups/persons often have an invested interest in the outcome.
Headnotes are summaries of the key legal points. Headnotes are useful for a quick understanding of the decision, but they are the editor's remarks and not the court's. Footnotes, however, are written by the justices on the court.
An Opinion is an explanation of the decision of the court. In the Supreme Court opinions are catagorized thus:
- Marjority opinion is written by a majority of members on the court. It is from this vote where the legal decision and future precedent comes. It explains the decision of the court on the matter at hand.
- Dissenting opinion is written by the minority judges who voted against the decision. While not legally binding, the dissenting opinion explains the opposing argument made by other members of the court.
- Concurring opinion is written by a judge who voted in the majority, but for different reasons, which are set out in the concurring opinion. They are not legally binding precedent, but explains the reasoning of that judge in the decision they made.
- Per curiam decision/opinion ("through the court") is written collectively and anonymously by the members of the majority. A per curiam does not list the individual author of the decision, but any dissenting and concurring decisions are signed.
A syllabus summarizes the points decided in the case.
Good glossary for legal terminology.
Pronouncing Dictionary of the United States Supreme Court