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UNIV1107: Professional Ethics: Evaluting Sources

Guidance for ethics assignment UNIV1107: Critical Thinking:Theory and Individual Analysis

Coming soon

C.R.A.P. or C. A. R. P. ?

You can choose the mnemonic abbreviation that you like, but this will give you a quick method to use for evaluation.


  • Is there an update date listed at the top or bottom of the page? Is there a copyright date at the bottom?
  • Are links broken (404 error)?
  • Is it current enough for your topic?

 IF CURRENCY IS NOT AN ISSUE, for example, if you are doing historical research, you may want to remember...


  • What is the criteria for my research assignment?
    • Do I need a certain type of article? Did the instructor specify empirical research, or can I use a case study?
    • Do I need to research on a particular population? Do I need information about specific age groups, gender, etc.?


  • Does it relate to your topic? Does

*some will put "Reliability", but you can usually figure if sometime is reliable with the questions about authority.



  • Is the author's name listed? If so, what makes the author an expert (credentials, known and respected)?
  • Is there a reputable organization behind it? What is the organization's interest (if any) in this information?
  • What is the domain (.edu, .com, .org, .net, .uk, .k12, etc)? Is the page hosted by an individual?
  • Does the creator provide reference citations or link to sources for data or quotations?

Purpose/Point of View

  • Is the site fair and objective? Is it an advocacy site? Is the page affiliated with an organization that has a particular political or social agenda?
  • Is there a conflict of interest? Does the web site producer stand to benefit from the information being provided?
  • How important is balance? Is your purpose to show bias? Is any bias explicit or hidden? Can you use the information?
  • Is the creator/author trying to sell you something?


C. R. A. P. Test Advice from Portland State



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