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Primary Research Articles
Are all the articles in a scholarly journal primary research articles?
No. Journals also publish other items. Some article types are listed below. While these articles can be very important and reputable, they cannot be considered primary research. If you have access to our databases (on-campus or via your MyID and password), click for examples.
How can I identify a primary research article?
- Information/Opinion Essay: Gives advice and information, usually targeted to practicioners -- doctors, teachers, counselors, etc. These essays are sometimes in first person. - example
- Book review/essay: Much longer than popular books reviews, academic books reviews often compare and analyze similar works, and contain a detailed bibliography -- example
- Literature review: A lit review surveys research done in a field, drawing conclusions and anticipating trends, but without detailed methodology information or data on any one research project -- example
- Reader Letters/Response Articles/Errata: Responses to articles published in a previous issue. These may be informal letters, or they may be very structured debates that cite other literature. There may be cases in which someone reports an error or corrects misprints of data. A letter may also describe recent research, but the content has not gone through the peer review process -- example
It should have the following parts:
- Title - These are often long and technical.
- Author Information - This includes author name, affiliation (such as a university or laboratory) and contact information.
- Citation - Citations include article title, journal or source name, volume and issue information and pagination. A DOI number may be on the first page of a journal, but it may be easier to find the DOI on the database record. (DOIs are used in APA style citation)
- Abstract - This is a summary of the whole article.
- Introduction - This outlines the problem being examined -- the purpose or hypothesis -- and may give some background about the problem, or previous research.
- Methodology - This is a vital section. In order for an experiment to be reproduceable, methodology must be thoroughly described. This may include discussion of materials and subject selection.
- Data/Results - Data may be presented in tables, charts, figures, or illustrations.
- Discussion/Conclusions -This section explains and interprets the results, drawing a final conclusion about the problem. Primary research may bring new information to the discipline, or may confirm or dispute previous findings.
- References - Are in a consistent style, and are extensive.
, Advertising & Public Relations
, Agricultural & Applied Econ
, Company Information
, Entertainment & Media Studies
, Journalism & Mass Communication
, Management Info Systems
, Marketing & Distribution
, Real Estate
Suggested Business Journals
Academy of Management Review Articles on concepts and theory of management.
Academy of Management Journal Includes articles of empirical research.
Organization Science Provides global research on organization theory, strategic management, systems theory, communication theory and more.
Administrative Science Quarterly Includes theoretical and empirical papers on dissertations, as well as interdisciplinary work in organizational theory.
Journal of Management Provides original scholarly articles on management and organization.
MIS Quarterly Articles on the development of IT-based services, management of IT resources, impact of IT with managerial, organizational, and societal implications.
Strategic Management Journal Provides articles on all aspects of strategic management including theory and practice.
Human Resource Management Contains articles on theories, techniques, case studies, and trends for practicing managers.
Industrial and Labor Relations Review Article focus is on employment relationship.
Business Trade Publications
Harvard Business Review A recognized authority on business leadership, HBR publishes research and case studies on a wide range of significant business topics.
Inc. Provides the entrepreneur with significant feature articles on business with analysis and guidance for large and small companies.
Fortune Publishes articles and commentary on many facets of business and finance.
Forbes Covers US and international business issues for executives, managers, and investors in US corporations
Economist Provides weekly news and business information and views on world events.
HR Magazine Articles on issues pertaining to human resource management.
BusinessWeek Provides in-depth coverage on trends in technology, finance and management.
Business Magazines & Journals at the UGA Libraries